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Smart Contract Security - A Practitioner's Perspective

TLDR; Smart contract engineers are required to be more aware of security issues than regular software engineers. They use multiple tactics to address security issues and continually address them throughout the lifecycle of smart contract development.

  • Smart Contract Engineers keep up to date with the latest security trends and hacks via Q&A websites (47%), blockchain forums (60%), and research papers (53%) [p. 1416].

  • Seventy-two percent of smart contract engineers surveyed used more than one security strategy in smart contract development, including code review, code style checking, reuse of code from reliable sources, and integration of fuzzing into the development lifecycle.

  • The most commonly used tools for smart contract security were Mythril (19%), Oyente (12%), SmartCheck (14%), and Slither (12%).

  • Future work may seek to do three things:

    • (1) systematize smart contract security approaches for the industry;
    • (2) identify common smart contract libraries for reuse of snippets of validated and debugged code;
    • (3) investigate various blockchains and coding tools through comparative analysis lenses for platform-level vulnerabilities.

Core Research Question

For smart contract engineers, what security practices are common throughout the lifecycle of smart contract development?


Z. Wan, X. Xia, D. Lo, J. Chen, X. Luo, and X. Yang, “Smart Contract Security: A Practitioners’ Perspective,” 2021 IEEE/ACM 43rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE), 2021, pp. 1410-1422, doi: 10.1109/ICSE43902.2021.00127.


The intended audience of this survey was smart contract auditors who are curious about general tactics. It was not intended to be a rigorous deep dive into methods and software development lifecycles.

Smart contracts are an appealing decentralized application technology for enabling computation on top of blockchains in response to off-chain events.

Smart contracts consist of executable code that enforces the terms of an agreement between untrusted parties on a blockchain.

Smart contracts are plagued with security issues. For example, The DAO was hacked for USD $34 million worth of Ether. (For more information on the latest hacks, please visit the site.).

Researchers have proposed language-based security, static analysis, and runtime verification to address security issues.

Academic research, before this article, did not cover practitioners’ tactics for addressing those security concerns.

Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors conducted 13 qualitative interviews with smart contract engineers and deployed a quantitative survey of 156 smart contract engineers to gather intel on their security practices during development.


Smart contracts are executable code built on top of blockchains. They are extremely useful for executing agreements between untrusted parties, and promise to be a key enabler of social automation in the 21st century. However, smart contracts remain rife with security bugs that can result in very costly exploits. Smart contract engineers care about protecting their users as well as their companies’ reputation for secure code. The security issue mitigation tactics used most commonly are code reviews, code reuse from reliable sources, and fuzzing tools incorporated into engineers’ continuous integration/continuous development process.

Keeping up to date with security issues is a challenge. The most common sources of information for the latest security news according to the paper are blockchain forums, question and answer websites, and research papers.

Practitioners are using more than one tactic for securing their smart contracts, but are in need of a way to systematize an industry standard approach to security within their development process, as none currently exists. Future work may seek to do three things:

  • (1) systematize smart contract security approaches for the industry,
  • (2) provide common smart contract libraries reused and snippets of helpful code, and
  • (3) investigate the different blockchains as well as different tools through comparative analysis lenses.


There were two methods used: qualitative interviews (16 participants) and a survey (156 participants) deployed.

Qualitative Interview Methodology:

Three categories of questions were asked:

  • (1) Asked demographic questions
  • (2) Asked open-ended questions about security awareness and practices of smart contract development.
  • (3) Asked interviewees to discuss their sources for security-related knowledge, strategies, and tools for smart contract security management.

Qualitative interviews used to open card sort and determine a list of statements and potential answers for the developing survey questions.

Survey Methodology:

Includes multiple-choice and free-text answer questions. Multiple-choice questions derived from qualitative interviews.

(1) Asked demographic questions
Do you have experience with smart contracts?
What best describes the primary blockchain platform you currently work on? Potential answers were:

  • (1) public blockchain
  • (2) consortium blockchain,
  • (3) private blockchain, and
  • (4) other.

Used 5-point Likert Scale (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree) to rank the importance of each questions in examining the following categories:

  • the importance of security for smart contracts
  • security motivators and deterrents
  • efforts towards security of smart contracts
  • experience of security problems with smart contracts
  • sources of security knowledge related to smart contracts
  • strategies for addressing smart contract security
  • tools used to detect security vulnerabilities in smart contracts


Who took the survey? Most respondents were based in China (61 participants) and the United States (16 participants). They averaged two years experience with smart contracts per respondent. Most respondents to the survey worked on public blockchains (80) such as Ethereum.

Results are divided into 3 categories: (1) Perceptions of Smart Contract Security, (2) Security Practices in Smart Contract Development, (3) Effect of Blockchain Platforms on Security Perceptions and Practices

These following are the results gained divided into the above 3 categories.

RQ1: Perceptions of Smart Contract Security: Importance of Security

85% rated security very important. 69% rated security extremely important.

Security Motivators

“I care about smart contract security because…”
protect users
protect the reputation of their companies.

Security Deterrents

40% responded they had had at least one out of three potential security problems:
vulnerabilities in unshipped code
vulnerabilities in shipped code
security breaches

Security problems occurred when?

Before code shipped (22%)
After code shipped (19%)
Security breach after code shipped (10%)

Sources of Security Knowledge

blockchain forums (60%)
research papers (53%)
question and answer website (47%)
support from professional security experts (47%)

RQ2: Security Practices in Smart Contract Development Efforts toward Security

29% of time overall developing smart contracts
14 respondents indicated that no time was spent on security.

Strategies for Handling Smart Contract Security

strategies for handling smart contract security 72% of respondents use more than one tactic for security mitigation
72% rely on code review often or very often
61% do code style checking
58% reuse code from reliable sources
28% incorporate fuzzing into the development lifecycle
Free text answers included:
Security By Design
Programming Languages
Dependency Management
Learning from Past Experience
Seeking Support from Experts

Tools to Address Smart Contract Security

54% adopt smart contract security tools in their development
45% rely on security plugins in IDEs
19% use Mythril
12% use Oyente
14% use SmartCheck
12% use Slither

RQ3: Effect of Blockchain Platforms on Security Perceptions and Practices

Security Motivators

practitioners of public blockchains are more motivated to address smart contract security concerns than those of consortium or private blockchains.

Security Deterrents

practitioners of public blockchains are more likely to take responsibility for addressing smart contract security

Security Efforts across Stages

Practitioners of public blockchains spend more effort towards security throughout the six stages of the development lifecycle

Security Strategies

Public blockchain practitioners tend to perform code reviews more frequently than consortium or private blockchains

Discussion and Key Takeaways

Smart contracts are more prone to attacks than regular software.

More frequent code reuse specifically exposes more security risks than in regular software development.

Most smart contract engineers use more than one method of securing their contracts throughout the lifecycle of their development.

Implications and Follow-Up

Future work may be standardization and operationalizing the process of building security into smart contracts for practitioners.

Future studies may include code snippets and smart contract libraries with helpful examples and tools to facilitate library updates.

Future studies could investigate the differences between blockchains, as well as examine and detail the differences between different tools used for smart contract security.


As a smart contract engineer, more than one method of security smart contracts throughout the lifecycle of development should be used.

Incorporate code reuse, code review, and fuzzing tools into your development cycle for security best practices, according to this study.

Security tools most commonly used by smart contract engineers are Mythril, Slither, Oyente, and SmartCheck.

Be mindful of blockchain platform limitations, language design limitations, and smart contract specific potential attacks as outlined in codified references such as the SWC Registry or the DASP registry.

Cross-posted on the Smart Contract Research Forum (SCRF).

Published Oct 12, 2021

security researcher, etc.